Arushi Kaushik

Ph.D. Candidate

Phone: (209) 202-9736



Arushi Kaushik, Effect of provision of secured Intellectual Property Rights in developing countries: Evidence from TRIPS (Trade-Related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) agreement, 2021. Preliminary Draft

Since Romer (1990), the endogenous growth models have emphasized the role of innovations in achieving sustainable growth. Due to the "public goods nature of ideas" (Williams and Sampat, 2019), lassiez faire policies may lead to under-investment in R&D activities. Consequently, governments often intervene to provide appropriate incentives to correct these positive externalities. One prominent form of government intervention are provision of intellectual property rights (IPRs) that grant innovators temporary monopolies over their inventions to recoup the R&D costs. However, such legal rights can be used strategically by firms and may prevent follow-on innovations (Williams et al, 2019). The net effect of introduction of such patent laws on R&D activities is, therefore, ambiguous. The trade-offs created by IPR laws get further complicated in the context of developing countries due to the additional uncertainty around the credibility of policy changes and the capacity of institutions to implement them, thus, making firms jittery about such expensive investments. In this paper, I study the impact of provision of secured Intellectual Property Rights on innovation activities in developing countries, using the variation caused by TRIPS-induced legal amendments in India's IPR regime. Prior to TRIPS, India's IPR environment was regulated by Indian Patents Act, 1970 that predominantly allowed "process" patenting (a weak form of IPR regulation) while granting "product" patenting only in a few categories. The implementation of TRIPS led to extension of "product" patenting to all the patent classes. I curated a novel data set by scrapping >1 million patent applications from the website of Indian Intellectual Office. Using the crosswalk provided by Lybbert and Zolas (2014), I match these patent classes to HS (Harmonized Systems) and then to NIC (National Industrial Classification) to map the patent classes to 3-digit industries. I find that both patent count and R&D expenditures by firms have increased in TRIPS-affected industries vis-a-vis non-TRIPS industries. However, in the long term proportionately fewer "domestic" firms are engaging in research activities.

Working Papers

Prashant Bharadwaj, Arushi Kaushik, Gordon McCord, Lotus McDougal and Anita Raj, In utero Exposure to Industrial Disasters: A Case Study of the Bhopal Gas Tragedy, 2020. Draft

Arushi Kaushik and Karthik Muralidharan, Class-Size Effects in Developing Countries: A Longitudinal Evidence from India, 2019. Slides Draft


Arushi Kaushik and Garima Agarwal, Crime Against Women: Desirability of Cognizance Level Punishment in presence of Judicial Errors, 2015, DU Journal of Undergraduate Research and Innovation. Paper

Non-Academic Publications

Garima Agarwal, Shashank Bhatt, Skand Goel and Arushi Kaushik, A unique, informal banking system of rickshaw drivers in cities, 2014, Ideas For India. Blog

Garima Agarwal, Shashank Bhatt, Adway De, Skand Goel and Arushi Kaushik , Do social networks affect remittances? A study of migrant rickshaw pullers in New Delhi, 2013, Eostre.